31/12/2016

Welcome !

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Welcome to visit shrines and temples of Japan !

Take a virtual walk through Japanese culture, with haiku as a special treat.

Check the ABC - CONTENTS on the right side!
They provide the glossary of technical terms, keywords and other items you are looking for.



Kokubun-Ji, Tsuyama, Okayama


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General Information

. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) . - - - Shinto Shrein
..... miya, guu 宮
..... honguu 本宮 Hongu, main shrine
..... taisha 大社 big shrine, Grand Shrine
..... yashiro, sha 社 (small) shrine etc.

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .



. Buddhist Temple (tera, ...ji 寺) . - - - Buddhistischer Tempel
crossroad temple, tsujidoo 辻堂
temple hall, hall, doo 堂


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


WASHOKU - Temple and Shrine Food  

. Sake Legends and Shinto Shrines 酒と神社 .


. Kami, Hotoke and Haiku - the beginning .

. - Shrines visited by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

. - Temples visited by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

. - Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶  visiting shrines and temples - .

. - Shrines visited by Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - .   

. - Temples visited by Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - .   

. - Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規 visiting shrines and temples - .


Apart from shrines and temples, this BLOG concentrates on introducing terminology of the Shinto background,
with haiku to go.
Unless mentioned otherwise, the translations are done by myself.


Gabi Greve
Daruma Museum Japan, Spring 2013


under construction, please come back often!
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. Japan Shinto Shrines - Facebook .

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18/06/2016

Hashihime Bridge Deity

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. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge"
"bridge maiden", "The Lady at the Bridge"


Uji no Hashi Hime 宇治の橋姫, 織津比売 (せおりつひめ)の神
. Checkpoints, barriers around Kyoto .

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- quote
Hashihime (橋姫) ("the maiden of the bridge")
is a character that first appeared in Japanese Heian-period literature, represented as a woman who spends lonely nights waiting for her lover to visit, and later as a fierce “oni” or demon fueled by jealousy. She came to be associated most often with a bridge in Uji.


Kyōka Hyaku-Monogatari 1853

Very little is known about the origin of Hashihime. The most common interpretation is that she was a lonely wife pining for her husband / lover to return but due to his infidelity, she became jealous and turned into a demon.
- source : wikipedia

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Hashihime no Yashiro 橋姫の社
Hashihime Jinja 橋姫神社 Hashihime Shrine




橋姫の社(はしひめのやしろ) は宇治橋の西づめにあり。はじめは二社なり。一社は洪水のとき漂流す。いま、礎存せり。
『古今』  さむしろに衣かたしくこよひもやわれをまつらんうぢの橋姫  読人しらず
この歌の評説をもって祭る神をしか云ふなり。『袖中抄』に、「住吉大明神橋姫の神にかよひ詠みたまふ歌なり」とぞ。清輔の説には、「山には山の神あり、橋には橋の神あり。姫とは佐保姫・竜田姫などに同じ。旧妻を橋姫になぞらふ」となり。一条禅閤(いちじょうぜんこう)の御説には、「離宮の神、夜ごとに通ひたまふとて、暁ごとにおびたたしく狼のたつ音のする」となん。
玄恵(げえん)法印の日く、「むかし嵯峨天皇の御とき、をとこにねたみある女、貴船のやしろに七夜丑の時参りして、この河瀬に髪をひたし悪鬼と化す。これを橋姫といふなり」。宗祇(そうぎ)の説には、「おもひかはしたる妻、立ちわかれて恋しきままに、『なれもわれをまつらん』とはし姫を妻によそへて、かこちいへる儀なるべし」。また『源氏物語』に「橋姫」の巻あり。これはなぞらへて書けるのみなり。この歌に付きてさまざまの儀侍れどもその詮なきよし、定家卿も宣ひけるとぞ。また逍遥院(しょうよういん)殿の御説も、清輔・宗祇のいふところに同じ。佐保姫・竜田姫・橋姫、これを三姫といふて、深き口授のあるよし、歌道の師によりて明らむべし。


あじろ木にいざよふ浪の音ふけてひとりやねぬるうちの橋姫 
ajirogi ni izayou nami no oto fukete hitori ya nenuru uji no hashihime 
慈円 - Jien (1155 - 1225) - 『新古』

橋姫のおるや錦とみゆるかな紅葉いざよふうぢの河波  
後宇多院 Gouda-In (Gouda Tenno) (1267 - 1324) - 『新千』 


宇治市宇治蓮華47 Uji
- source : sites.google.com/site/miyakomeisyo -


Writing Margins: The Textual Construction of Gender in Heian and Kamakura Japan
By Terry Kawashima
The figure of Hashihime, . . .
- with poems about the Hashihime
- source : books.google.co.jp -



はし姫のもみぢ重やかりてましたびねは寒し宇治の川かぜ
Hashihime no momijigasane ya kari te mashi tabine wa samushi Uji no kawakaze.

Wondering if I should borrow
from the Princess of Bridges
this robe of autumn leaves—
my rest while traveling so cold...
the Uji River wind.


Otagaki Rengetsu (1791 - 1875)

- source : rengetsu.org/poetry_db -


さむしろに衣かたしきこよひもや我をまつらむうぢのはしひめ
samushiro ni koromo katashiki koyo mo ya ware o matsuramu uji no hashihime

On a thin straw mat
Beneath a single layer of clothes
On this night, too,
I wonder, does she await me,
My maid at Uji Bridge.


source : Anonymous - wakapoetry.net



さむしろや待つ夜の秋の風ふけて. 月をかたしく宇治の橋姫
samushiro ya matsu yo no aki no kaze fukete tsuki wo katashiku uji no hashihime

How cold!
waiting out the autumn’s weary night
deepening as the wind blows
she spreads out the moon’s light
the Princess of Uji Bridge.


Fujiwara no Teika
- source : wikipedia -


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- quote -
橋姫(はしひめ)
は、橋にまつわる日本の伝承に現れる女性・鬼女・女神である。
- Image 鳥山石燕『今昔画図続百鬼』より「橋姫」。解説文に「橋姫の社は山城の国宇治橋にあり」とあることから、宇治の橋姫を描いたものと解釈されている。
- Image 鳥山石燕『今昔画図続百鬼』より「丑の刻参り」
- Image 現在の堀川と戻り橋
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Hashihime – The Bridge Princess
From Mizuki Shigeru, Yōkai Stories
Nothing quite embodies the saying “Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned” like the Hashihime. A human woman consumed by jealousy and hatred, she transformed herself through sheer willpower—and the assistance of a helpful deity who taught her a complicated ritual—into a living demon of rage and death. A yokai from the Heian period, she is one of the most powerful and fierce creatures in Japan’s menagerie.



What Does Hashihime Mean?
With only two kanji, her name is straight-forward: 橋 (hashi; bridge) 姫 (hime; princess). But there is a secret meaning hidden inside. In ancient Japanese, the word airashi (愛らしい; pretty; charming; lovely; adorable) could be pronounced “hashi.” So “Hashihime the Bridge Princess” was also a homophone for (愛姫) “Hashihime the Pretty Princess.”
The only real question is why does such a horrible demon have such a lovely, delicate name? This is because the name predates the monster. There have been Bridge Princesses—benign deities of the water—for far longer than there have been jealous women with crowns of iron and burning torches clenched between their teeth.
- - - Hashihime as Water Goddess
Going back into ancient, pre-literate Japan, there has long been a mythology built around bridges. Japan was—and still is—an animistic culture where nature is embodied by spirits of good and ill. The wonders of nature, like particularly large and twisted trees or odd and out of place rocks, had their own guardian deities called kami. Rivers too, especially large rivers, were the abodes of gods. ...
In the year 905 CE, we get one of the oldest known written mentions of the Hashihime, in a poem from the 14th scroll of the Kokin Wakashū (古今和歌集; Collection of Poems of Ancient and Modern Times). This is especially notable because it mentions not just any Hashihime, but the Hashihime of Uji—a legend that would come to dominate all images of this fantastic creature.

Upon a narrow grass mat
laying down her robe only
tonight, again –
she must be waiting for me,
Hashihime of Uji


- - - Hashihime as Female Demon
How the transformation happened—from benign, sexy river goddess to avatar of female rage—is unknown. Most likely it happened like all folklore, organically and over time. The shrines to the Hashihime existed near bridges, and as people forgot their original purpose they began to make up new stories. Most of these stories tended to include some legend of the Hashihime as “woman done wrong.” There are old legends of a woman whose husband went off to war and never came back, and she wept by the river bank in sorrow until she was transformed into the Hashihime. Others are stories of jealousy and revenge. ...
While Lady Rokujo is not the Hashihime, ...
- - - The Heike Monogatari and the Hashihime of Uji
...The Heike Monogatari emphasizes repeatedly than the Hashihime is a “still-living” oni. ...
Toriyama’s Text:
“The Goddess Hashihime lives in the under the Uji Bridge in Yamashiro province (Modern day Southern Kyoto). That is the explanation for this drawing of the Hashihime of Uji.”
- - - Kanawa 鉄輪 – The Iron Crown
The Noh play Kanawa (鉄輪; The Iron Crown) comes from one of the versions of the Hashihime story from the Heike Monogatari. ...
- - - Other Hashihime
Although she is by far the most famous, the Hashihime of Uji is not the only Hashihime. Nagarabashi bridge over the Yodogawa river in Osaka and the Setanokarabashi bridge over the Setagawa river in Sega prefecture also lay claim to their own Hashihimes.
- - - The Hashihime Shrine
..... Shrine records claim the Hashihime Shrine dates back to 646 CE, making it older than most known legends of the Hashihime of Uji. Most likely it was originally dedicated to the water goddess under the bridge, and the kami of the shrine evolved along with the legends. ...
- source : Zack Davisson -

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- quote -
The Tale of the Hashihime of Uji
Translated from the Heike Monogatari
During the Imperial reign of the Emperor Saga, there lived a courtly lady consumed by jealousy. So powerfully was she in jealousy’s grip that she made a pilgrimage to the shrine at Kifune and cloistered in prayer. For seven days, she devoted herself to a single-minded wish: “Oh great and powerful Kami of Kifune, grant me the powers of a devil while I am still living. Make me a fierce being, terrible to behold. Let my outer form match the flame of jealousy that burns so brightly within. Let me kill.”



That great miracle-working Kami of Kifune understood the depths of her desire, and heeded her call. “I am moved by pity and by the sincerity of your prayer. If you wish to become a living oni, to change into a monstrous form, get thee to the Kawase river in Uji. Perform the ceremony I shall now teach you, and then return to submerge yourself in the waters of the river. Do this for 21 days.” This courtly lady saw and heard the manifestation of this celestial being, and was in rapture.
- continued here
- source : Zack Davisson -


. ikiryoo 生霊 . 生き霊 Ikiryo“living spirit” .
vengeful spirit, mostly female
ushi no toki mairi

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totose 十歳 - an expression from the Genji Monogatari.
Hashi Hime, Hashihime 橋姫

その人もかしこにてうせ侍にし後ととせあまりにて
sono hito mo kashiko ni te use haberi ni shi nochi,
totose amari nite

quote
A pictorial subject based on "The Lady at the Bridge" Hashihime, Chapter 45 of GENJI MONOGATARI 源氏物語 (The Tale of Genji).



The last ten chapters of the Tale are known as UJI JUUJOU 宇治十帖 (The Ten Books of Uji). This chapter, the first of the ten, introduces the Eighth Prince Hachi no miya 八宮, a half-brother of Genji, and his two daughters, Ooigimi 大君 and Naka no kimi 中君, who live with him in his self-imposed retirement at Uji (south of Kyoto). The prince is known for his piety and wisdom. Kaoru 薫, whose serious character is engendered by deep misgivings about his paternity, begins to study under Hachi no miya.
Eventually he learns from Ben no kimi 弁君, the daughter of *Kashiwagi's 柏木 wet nurse, that he is not in fact Genji's son, but rather the illegitimate son of Kashiwagi. The scene most frequently chosen for illustration shows Ooigimi playing a lute biwa 琵琶 and Naka no kimi a harp koto 琴 under the moon and clouds while Kaoru secretly peers in through a break in the villa's bamboo fence.
This scene survives in a section of the earliest illustrated version (12c) in the Tokugawa 徳川 Art Museum.
source : Jaanus


. Matsuo Basho - totose 十歳 .
aki totose kaette Edo o sasu kokyoo

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Tea Bowl, Known as "Hashihime" (bridge maiden)
Mino ware, Shino type, Azuchi-Momoyama - Edo period, 16th - 17th century



- source : Tokyo National Museum -

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- Reference : 橋姫
- Reference : Hashihime


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #hashihime #hashihimeshrine #japanesehistory #chawan -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Shrine Hashihime no Yashiro, Uji
京都府宇治市宇治蓮華47番地

If the procession of a wedding passes before this shrine, someone will certainly become very ill or even die. It is also possible that the wedding will not be successful and the couple divorced.

During the Time of Minamoto no Raikō many people suddenly disappeared.
When he investigated the events, he found that during the times of 嵯峨天皇 Saga Tenno a very jealous woman cast a spell at 貴船の社 Kifune Shrine.
The shrine is therefore associated with the Ushi no toki mairi 丑の時参り, the ritual of wearing candles on one's head and laying a curse at a shrine during the "hour of the Ox", since it is from the resident deity that Hashihime learns the prescribed ritual to turn herself into an oni鬼 demon to exact vengeance.
This story is told in the Noh play Kanawa 金輪 ("The Iron Crown").

. 源頼光 Minamoto no Yorimitsu, Raiko (948 - 1021) .
Minamoto no Raikō


- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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28/05/2016

ichigami deity of market town

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. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Ichigami 市神 / いちがみ deity of the market town, market deity

There are various shugojin 守護神 protector deities of market towns, many of then female.

- - - - - In Western Japan they are usually
エビスガミ Ebisugami,蛭子(ひるこ)神 Hirukogami
イチキシマヒメノミコト Ichikishima Hime no Mikoto 市杵島姫 / 大市姫 Oichihime

- - - - - In Eastern Japan they are usually
オオクニヌシノミコト Okuninushi no Mikoto
ヒコホホデミノミコト Hikohohodemi no Mikoto 彦火火出見
コトシロヌシノカミ Kotoshironushi no Kami 事代主命
イチキシマヒメノミコト Ichikishima Hime no Mikoto 市杵島姫 / 大市姫 Oichihime


CLICK for more photos !

They are venerated in various forms, from natural round stones to carved stones with the inscription 市神 or six-sided wooden pillars and small 祠 Hokora shrines.
They were placed at the entrance to a town or a fishing harbour, at a bridge or a four-road crossing.
There are no special days for their festivals but on some special days people make offerings:
正月の蔵(くら)開き Opening of the Storehouse at the New Year
小正月 End of the New Year festivities. (now January 14)



They are closely related to the Dosojin Wayside Deities.

. 道祖神 Dosojin Wayside Deities .


The oldest mention of an Ichigami is in 795, when 藤原冬嗣 Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu enshrined the 宗像大神 Munakata deity as protector of the East and West Town of Kyoto.

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There are various shrines in Japan named
Ichigami Jinja 市神神社 Ichigami Shrine

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Gifu no Ichigami Jinja
Gifu-ken, Ena-shi, Ōichō, 600



The deity in residence is 恵比寿様 Ebisu sama.
With a special market on every day with a seven - 七日市 / 七日福市.

- reference -

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Omi no Ichigami Jinja
15-4 Yokaichihonmachi, Higashiomi, Shiga Prefecture / 滋賀県八日市市本町15-4

- Deities in Residence
事代主命 大国主命 猿田彦大神 額田王

- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- source : norichan.jp/jinja -


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- Reference : 日本語



source and more photos : nishizato.net/shirotorijiin


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #ichigami -
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- - - - -  H A I K U  - - - - -

市神の狛犬に角木下闇
Ichigami no koma-inu ni tsuno koshitayami

the Komainu
of the Ichiba Deity has horns -
darkness under the trees


田中英子 Tanaka Eiko

. WKD : konoshita yami 下闇(こしたやみ) darkness under the trees .
- kigo for all summer




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Kabire Jingu

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. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Kabire Jingu かびれ神宮 / 賀毘礼 Kabire Shrine, Ibaraki
Oiwa Jinja 御岩神社

御岩山山頂(かびれの高峰) 賀毘礼の高峰  / 賀び禮山(かびれさん)


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茨城県日立市入四間町752 / 752 Irishiken-cho Hitachi, 317-0055, Ibaraki

- quote
Historical background of Oiwa Shrine
The origin of Oiwa Shrine was described in the Hitachi-Fudoki which is one of the oldest history books published in the 8th century. In the book it was explained that God lived at the foot of Mt.Kabire,ie Mt.Oiwa, and inhabitants built a shrine there. The precincts of the shrine is broad and many small shrines are scattered there. In the Edo-era, some temples were also erected. These shrines and temples were preserved by Mito Tokugawa family. Policy of separating the temple and shrine was carried out in the Meiji-era, but some evidence of temple is remained here.Therefore Festival of the shrine is under the influence of Shinto and Buddhism.
- - - Strolling the grounds of the shrine
There is a big torii gate at 50m south from there and you just walk inside the spiritual ground of the shrine. Here also is starting point of a trail up Mt.Takasuzu where is the highest mountain in Hitachi City. Passing under the torii gate, the huge cedar called Sanbon-sugi can be found. In fact, the stem of 9m in diameter is one and it is divided into three at 3 m above the ground. The cedar is 50m in height and is estimated to be over 600 years old. The cedar "Sanbon-sugi" is designated as the natural monument by Ibaraki Prefecture.
Then there is a two-storied gate which was reconstructed at 1990's, and Nio Guardians (Nio-sama) are worshipped at both sides of the gate. In the cedar grove, the way continues to Hall (Haiden) of Oiwa Shrine through a small bridge that is painted red. There are some monuments and small shrines along the way.



Climbing the narrow road behind the Haiden for about 20 minutes, Kabire shrine can be found in a dense and dark forest.
The narrow road is a mountain trail up to Mt.Takasuzu of 623m via Mt.Kabire (Mt.Oiwa) that is formed by oddly-shaped rocks.
- source : hyotanhitachi.web.fc2.com


- - - - - Deities in residence - - - - -
天照大神 Amatereasu Omikami
邇邇藝命 Ninigi no Mikoto
立速日男命 Tachihayahio no Mikoto (たちはやひをのみこと)
= 速経和気命 / 速経和気の命 Hayafuuke no Mikoto




source : 4travel.jp/travelogue

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source : blog.goo.ne.jp/howaitoyaiga

- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- source : oiwajinja.jp -


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- - - - - On the road


三王大神 水速女命
三王大神 Sanoo no Oomikami (さんのうのおおかみ)


Mizuhanome 水速女命 Deity of water

ミヅハノメは、日本神話に登場する神である。『古事記』では
弥都波能売神(みづはのめのかみ)、『日本書紀』では罔象女神(みつはのめのかみ)と表記する。神社の祭神としては水波能売命などとも表記される。淤加美神とともに、日本における代表的な水の神(水神)である。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


source : karu2pokapoka.cocolog-nifty.com

- quote -
Protector of wells, Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, the well goddess
vs. Suijin-Sama, the water-god

The tutelar deity of well-cleaners is known by two names, Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, the Goddess of Wells, and by the more generic Water-god, and usually male counterpart, Suijin-Sama whose role is to protect all wells and keep the water sweet and cool. The wells must be cleaned once a year, or the breaking of cleanliness law by the house-owners will incur the wrath of the deity, bringing sickness and death.
The goddess (god) rarely manifests her/himself, but when s/he does, s/he takes the form of a serpent. Her/His familiars or messengers, are usually a pair of fish called funa (crucian carp), a live pair are released into wells to eat the larvae inhabiting the well water.
..... The first water of the well must be drawn by a man, for the presumably jealous well goddess would be angered by a woman doing so.
..... R.A.B. Ponsonby-Fane in his “Studies of Shinto and Shrines”, traces the Mizuhanome deity to one of the three Amashi-no-kami rain deities enshrined in the Nibu-kawakami jinja, located on Upper River Nibu in Yoshino-gun.
..... Ponsonby-Fane also hypothesizes that Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto (or Mizuhanome-no-kami) was one of the water deities venerated by local indigenous aboriginals when Emperor Jimmu arrived and which is why it was decided to build the Nibukawakami shrine at that very location, and thereby including the female Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, along with the other Amashi rain deities, Takaokami and Kuraokami, the latter two being male raingods.

The earliest date recorded in the Engishiki for the receipt of “hei” (offerings given by the Imperial Court) by the goddess from the Imperial Court is 763 A.D. though the founding of the shrine is given as a hundred years earlier.
Kojiki and Nihonshoki record Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto as the water goddess born to Izanami-no-mikoto, from her urine. (According to Kojiki, Kuraokami and Kuramitsuha were produced from the blood as it collected on the hilt of Izanagi’s sword and dripped through his fingers.)

The fact of the worship of a water goddess called Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto is thus corroborated by the Engishiki records, as well as both the Kojiki and Nihonshoki accounts.

According to Daniel Holtom’s “National Faith of Japan“(at p. 96), earlier sources called the shrine Nibu Kawakami which means Nibu river rain-chief shrines, or simply Rain Chief shrines.

“The title translated Rain-Chief is read Okami in the original and is written with two ideograms, one meaning rain and the other chief or head. We are thus in possession of an easy key to understanding the meaning of the names of the two deities, just introduced. The gods of the Nibu shrines are Dark Rain-Chief Deity (Kura-Okami-no-Kami) and “Fierce Rain-Chief Deity” (Taka Okami-no-Kami), kura(kurai) being taken in the ordinary sense of dark and taka being taken in the sense of takeki “fierce” or “brave”. [note: kura also means “narrow gorge beneath a cliff“]

The Upper River Nibu Kawakami shrine and the Lower River Nibu Kawakami shrine’s identical documents thus reveal the true function of the two male water-gods Taka and Kura Okami. The note in the shrine text document explained that the two deities are rain dragons, the lower shrine deity being a guardian of the valley, and the upper one, a guardian dragon god of mountain tops. Both deities are considered to be one, and to be Amashi-no-kami, rain gods. A black horse was offered to the Kura Okami deity to induce the deity to produce rain during droughts, while a white horse was meant to halt the rain. See A study of rain deities and rain wizards of Japan.

On the more generic water god, the Encyclopedia of Shinto has more on Suijin-no-kami or Water god.

“Water-kami,” a general term for tutelaries of water, found in a variety of forms. Water is of crucial importance in agriculture, and the availability and quality of water can spell life or death to farmers; as a result, tutelaries of water naturally came to be associated with rice-field tutelaries (ta no kami). Most suijin are found enshrined on the dikes of irrigation canals, or alongside paddy fields. In some cases, water kami may be found enshrined as “water distributing kami” (mikumari no kami) at the mountain springs forming the sources of agricultural waterways, in which cases they may also be associated with the kami of the mountain (yama no kami). In addition to their connection with the water used in agriculture, water kami are also found enshrined at sources of water used in everyday life, such as household wells, springs, and streams…”
- source : japanesemythology.wordpress.com-


. Takaokami-no-Kami and Kuraokami-no-Kami .
at Kifune Jinja 貴船神社, Kurama Kyoto

. Takaokami 高おかみ神 / 高淤加美神 , Kuramitsuha / Kuraokami,
闇淤加美神 Kuraokami no kami, Takaokami no kami .

and Rain Rituals


. Mizu no Kamisama 水の神様 Suijin 水神 .
and 罔象女神 Mizuhanome

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- quote -
The Annotated Out of the East by Lafcadio Hearn / Chapter V
July 25 :
Three extraordinary visits have been made to my house this week.
The first was that of the professional well cleaners. For, once every year, all wells must be emptied and cleaned, for fear that the god of Wells, Suijin-sama, will be angry. On this occasion I learned some things relating to Japanese wells and their guardian deity, who has two names, also being called Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto.

Suijin-sama protects all wells, keeping their water sweet and cool, provided that house owners observe his laws of cleanliness, which are rigid. Sickness and death comes to those who break them. Taking the form of a serpent, the god rarely manifests himself. I have never seen any temple dedicated to him, but once a month, a Shintō priest visits the homes of pious families having wells, and he repeats certain ancient prayers to the Well God, and plants nobori, little paper flags, which are symbols, at the edge of the well. This is also done after the well has been cleaned. Then, the first bucket of the new water must be drawn up by a man; for, if a woman first draws water, the well will always thereafter remain muddy.

The god has little servants to help him in his work. These are the small fishes the Japanese call funa. One or two funa are kept in every well to clear the water of insect larvae. When a well is cleaned, great care is taken with the little fish. It was on the occasion of the coming of the well cleaners that I first learned of the existence of a pair of funa in my own well. They were placed in a tub of cool water while the well was refilling, and thereafter were put back into their solitude.

The water of my well is clear and ice-cold. But now, I can never drink from it without a thought of those two small white lives, always circling in darkness, and startled for untold years by the descent of splashing buckets.
- source : facebook -


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- Reference : かびれ神宮


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #kabirejingu #mizuhanome -

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20/03/2016

Tamawakasu Mikoto Shrine Shimane

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Tamawakasumikoto Jinja 玉若酢命神社 Tamawakasu Mikoto Shrine, Shimane
若酢大明神 Wakasu Daimyojin. 総社明神



島根県隠岐郡隠岐の島町下西701 / 701 Shimonishi, Okinoshima-chō, Oki-gun, Shimane

- quote -
Tamawakasu-no-mikoto Shrine
This shrine is the main general shrine of Oki, and was constructed in the Oki architectural style. Every year on 5 June an important festival called 御霊会 Gorei-furyū takes place in which eight sacred horses carrying the gods from eight different areas around the island gallop up to the shrine entrance.



Next door to the shrine is the Oki-ke Family Residence, where the head priest of the Tamawakasu-mikoto Shrine has lived for many, many generations. Inside is a small museum of important historical artifacts that were passed on through the generations, including the eki-rei station bells that originated in 646 and are the only ones remaining in Japan.
These treasures, the residence and the shrine are Important Cultural Property of Japan.

- - - - - Also introduced on this page are
Amasashihikono-mikoto Shrine あまさしひこみことじんじゃ - 隠岐神社
Kuniga Shrine 国賀神社
Mizuwakasu Shrine 水若酢神社
Takuhi Shrine  焼火神社
Yurahime Shrine  由良比女神社
- source : kankou-shimane.com -

Mizuwakasu Shrine 水若酢神社
The daughter of the head priest of the 祇官忌部家 Inbei family and becomes the bride of the 龍蛇 Ryuja Dragon-Serpent which resides in the pond.

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CLICK for more photos of the festival !
玉若酢命神社御霊会 (ごれえ)

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The biggest island in the Oki region is Dogo and on this island is located Tamawakasumikoto-jinja Shrine which enshrines numerous gods. The main shrine is a historic building with a thatched roof and is actually the Oki region’s oldest shrine building. The shrine has been constructed in a unique Oki architectural style and in 1992 it was designated as national important cultural property.
The highlight of the shrine grounds is a 30m tall cedar with 20m roots that is more than 2000 years old, commonly called "Yaosugi".
The tree’s name of Yaosugi comes from the legend of Yao Bikuni, which involves an immortal woman named
Yao Bikuni who is said to have planted this tree and then come back 800 years later to see how the tree was doing. The tree itself is designated as a natural national treasure.
Every year on June 5 the Gorei Furyu festival is held. This festival involves 8 horses carrying the 8 gods of the island to the shrine where they gather.
- source : japanhoppers.com/chugoku

- - - - - Deities in residence - - - - -
玉若酢命 Tamawakasu no Mikoto
大己貴命 Okuninushi
須佐之男命 Susanoo
稲田姫命 Kushinadahime
事代主命 Kotoshironushi
須世理姫命 Suserihime


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shuin 朱印 stamp

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umajiya no suzu, umasha no suzu 駅鈴(うまじやのすず)horse station bells
ekirei, eki-rei 駅鈴(えきれい)
post road bells (ekiro no suzu 駅路(えきろ)のすず) or
stable bells (umaya no suzu うまやのすず) / うま舎 - 馬舎(うまや)
. Shimane Folk Art - 島根県 .




- reference : eonet.ne.jp/~i-kimoto/Furusato -

In memory of Emperor Kotoku (孝徳天皇, 596?-654) Kōtoku around 646, who had horses for messengers stationed here and in many other parts of Japan.
駅馬 - horses for the messengers of the Emperor
伝馬 - packhorses for luggage
Emperor Kotoku choose the era name Taika (“Great Change”) for the first half of his reign.

- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- source : wikipedia -


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Station bell
Under the Japanese ritsuryō system, station bells or post bells (駅鈴 ekirei) were bells of red copper issued by the central government or by local provincial government offices to travelling officials or messengers known as ekishi (駅使). Functioning as a proof of identity, they allowed them to procure horses and labour at post stations. These post stations were located every 30 ri (16 kilometers) each providing between five and twenty messenger horses depending on the grade of the road.
Depending on the rank of the emissary, the bells were marked with a number of notches regulating the number of horses that could be requested. A prince of royal blood of first rank would receive ten horses. On urgent dispatches the ekishi would ride with the bells ringing in order to be able to change horses at any time of day or night without delay. These bells were also known as
post road bells (ekiro no suzu 駅路(えきろ)のすず) or stable bells (umaya no suzu うまやのすず).
The system was established in the Taihō Code from 701 and was in use until the end of the 12th century or the end of the Heian period when it fell in disuse together with the demise of the centralized state.

A set of two station bells located on Dōgo island in Okinoshima, Shimane Prefecture and known as
Ekirei of Oki Province (隠岐国駅鈴 oki no kuni ekirei) has been designated as Important Cultural Property of Japan.
Attached to the nomination is a six-legged Chinese style chest bestowed by Emperor Kōkaku. The bells have been handed down in the Oki family whose members were associated with the
Tamawakasu no Mikoto Shrine (玉若酢命神社 tamawakasu no mikoto jinja) and the regional administrators of Oki Province. They are currently located in the Oki family treasure hall (億岐家宝物館 Oki-ke Hōmotsu-kan) in Okinoshima.
The two bells are of flat octagonal shape and made of cast copper. On one side of the trunk the character "駅" (station) is carved, and on the opposite side, the character "鈴" (bell). At the bottom of the bells three and four legs are attached respectively. They weigh in at 700 g (25 oz) and 770 g (27 oz) respectively. Before World War II, the bells had been designated as National Treasure of Japan on April 30, 1935, but lost this status in the reorganisation of cultural property protection after the war when all previously designated National Treasures were demoted to Important Cultural Properties in 1950.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Taika Reform 大化の改新
The Reform Edicts severely curtailed the independence of regional officials, creating an effective, centralized imperial government, and constituted the imperial court as a place where the people could bring their appeals and complaints.
..... Barriers and outposts shall be erected, and guards and post horses for transportation and communication purposes shall be provided. Furthermore bell-tokens shall be made and mountains and rivers shall be regulated. .....
..... A separate household tax (kocho) shall also be levied, under which each household shall pay one rod and two feet of cloth, and a surtax consisting of salt and offerings. The latter may vary in accordance with what is produced in the locality. With regard to horses for public service, one horse of medium quality shall be contributed by every one hundred households, or one horse of superior quality by every two hundred households. If the horses have to be purchased, each household shall contribute one rod and two feet of cloth toward the purchase price.
- source : newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Taika_Reforms -


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The Taika Reforms 大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin
were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku-tennō) in the year 645. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku, and the defeat of the Soga clan (蘇我氏 Soga no uji), uniting Japan. The reforms also artistically marked the end of the Asuka period and the beginning of the Hakuhō period.[1][2] Crown Prince Naka no Ōe (who would later reign as Emperor Tenji), Nakatomi no Kamatari, and Emperor Kōtoku jointly embarked on the details of the Reforms. Emperor Kōtoku then took the name "Taika" (大化), or "Great Reform".

The Reform began with land reform, based on Confucian ideas and philosophies from China, but the true aim of the reforms was to bring about greater centralization and to enhance the power of the imperial court, which was also based on the governmental structure of China. Envoys and students were dispatched to China to learn seemingly everything from the Chinese writing system, literature, religion, and architecture, to even dietary habits at this time. Even today, the impact of the reforms can still be seen in Japanese cultural life.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



source : 幸麿の研究所

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Emperor Kōtoku 孝徳天皇 Kōtoku-tennō
(596 – November 24, 654) was the 36th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
The years of his reign lasted from 645 through 654.
He enacted the Taika Reform Edicts.
..... The years of Kōtoku's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Taika 大化 (645–650)
Hakuchi 白雉 (650–655)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Taika 大化
a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,, lit. "year name") during the reign of Kōtoku.
The Taika era immediately preceded the Hakuchi era. This period spanned the years from August 645 through February 650.
..... Events of the Taika era
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- Reference : 玉若酢命神社
- Reference : English


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #tamawakasumikoto #okinoshimashimane #ekirei-
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18/03/2016

Kaso Jinja Kyoto

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Kaso Jinja 菓祖神社 Kaso Shrine, Kyoto
Kaso Sha 菓祖社
Kasojin 菓祖神 (かそじん) Deity of Sweets


. Wagashi 和菓子 Japanese Sweets - Introduction .
The love of the Japanese for sweets goes way back to the Heian period, where they were mostly made of fruits, nuts and bean paste and called fruit (kudamono くだもの). Their origin was mainland China, so they were also called "Chinese cakes" 唐菓子. The citrus fruit Tachibana 橘 was introduced in the Heian period.



This shrine was built in by the sweets merchants of Kyoto in 1957, November 11.
It has deities in residence from three Shrines

兵庫県中島神社 Hyogo - Nakashima Jinja
和歌山県橘本神社 Wakayama - Kitsumoto Jinja
奈良県林神社 Nara - Rin Jinja (dedicated to the Deity of 饅頭 Manju sweets)

- - - - - Deities in residence - - - - -
Tajimamori no Mikoto 田道間守命
Hayashijooin no Mikoto 林浄因命 Hayashi Join

- details see below -



- - - - - HP of the Shrine
京都府京都市左京
- source : kyotokashioroshi.jp/okashi -

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Yearly Festivals 年中行事

春季大祭:4月19日 Spring Festival
秋季大祭:11月11日 Autumn Festival

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兵庫県中島神社 Hyogo Nakashima Jinja
A Shrine for the Deity of Sweets 菓祖・菓子の神.



Another deity at this Shrine is
天湯河棚神 Amenoyukawatana no Kami


1 Miyake, Toyooka, Hyogo
田道間守命は天日槍命の5世の子孫で、『日本書紀』に記される垂仁天皇の命により常世の国から「非時香果(ときじくのかぐのみ)」(橘のこと)を持ち返ったとされる人物である[2]。橘は菓子の最上級品とされたことから、菓子の神・菓祖として崇敬される。また、現鎮座地に居を構えて当地を開墾し、人々に養蚕を奨励したと伝えられることから、養蚕の神ともされる。
- source : ja.wikipedia.org -


Amenoyukawatana / Ameno-Yukawatana / Yukawatana
- source : nihonshoki.wikidot -

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和歌山県橘本神社 Wakayama Kitsumoto Jinja



Mikan Matsuri みかん祭り Mikan Sweets Festival
April 03.


source : guruwaka.com/mikan-matsuri

Members of the confectionery industry come here to pray for good business.
More than 150 different sweets and Mikan from all parts of Japan are given as offerings.

和歌山県海草郡下津町橘本
- source : konchi/kitumoto/menu -


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奈良県林神社 Nara Rin Jinja
In the compound of 漢國神社内 Kango Jinja

dedicated to the Deity of 饅頭 Manju steamed buns



Hayashijooin no Mikoto 林浄因命 Hayashi Join, Rin Join



奈良市漢國町二番地
- source : kangou-jinja.jp/rinjinja -


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. Tajimamori no Mikoto 田道間守命 (たぢまもりのみこと) .
ancestor of Mikan and Sweets




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Hayashijooin no Mikoto 林浄因命 (はやしじょういんのみこと)Hayashijoin


source : shiose.co.jp

Hayashi Join 林浄因 (林浄因 りんじょういん Rin Join) came from Zhejiang in Eastern China, his descendant is 林和靖 Rin Wasei.
He was the first to make Manju (mantoo 饅頭(マントゥ)in Japan. Manju made at the Kango Jinja Shrine 漢國神社社 became famous and later were offered to the Imperial Court and the Ashikaga Shogun.
林宗二 Hayashi Soji (Manjuya Soji 饅頭屋宗二 1498 - 1581). He was also called 林逸(りんいつ) Rin Itsu.
He published a Japanese-language dictionary in Iroha order of the Japanese alphabet:
饅頭屋本節用集, (せつようしゅう) Setsuyoshu.
- reference : kangou-jinja.jp -

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- #kasojinja #wagashideity #rinjoin #hayashijoin #tajimamori -
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08/03/2016

hitsuki hifumi shinji

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hitsuki (hifumi, hitsuku) shinji 日月神示



A divine revelation introduced by
Okamoto Tenmei 岡本天明 (1897 - 1963)


- quote
日月神示(ひつきしんじ、ひつくしんじ)は、神典研究家で画家でもあった岡本天明に「国常立尊」(別名、国之常立神)と呼ばれている高級神霊より自動書記によって降ろされたとされる神示である。
- source : wikipedia


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A revelation of Ameno Hitsukunokami

- quote -
日月神示(ひふみ神示)とは?



日月神示(ひつきしんじ)とは、昭和の第二次世界大戦中、千葉県成田市にある麻賀多神社の末社・天之日津久神社にて、岡本天明という人物に神懸かった神霊によって書記された神示(預言書)です。
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -


Hitsuki Shinji: A Shinto-inspired teaching

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First ever English translation of the Hitsuki Shinji
What is Hikarikyokwai Society?
Jehova revealed Himself to those elects of old Judea in the times when He felt that it is necessary to do so. Books of Moses were written like that and those books of prophets the same. However, if we limit that such a revelation could be given only to them, St. John’s revelation as the last and never afterward, doesn’t it sound unreasonable? Why can’t Jehova have any elects among those nations which are not Jews? Isn’t hat also thinkable that God is willing to reveal Himself to the Asiatic nations sometimes?

Swedenbrog had to explain exactly the same sort of thing while he was woking hard to write down what the Lord has shown him in 18th century. Zeal of these notes is to introduce that we have the same sort of case which has taken place here in Japan since June of 1944.

It was in the suite of Shinto shrine Mahgata, in Kohzu-mura, Chiba prefecture, when a Japanese painter Mr. Okamoto was there. He got a kind of shock and painful impulses to write. He wrote down what he himself could not read at all at the beginning. But it was much afterward that those writings were found to be quite valuable.

They can be said a revelation of Ameno Hitsukunokami dictated by Hitsukunokami, that is a kind of divine revelation that was given to Japanese nation at the close of the war. However, we are convinced that this revelation is not addressed only to Japanese alone but to whole nation of the world, and that’s the reason the Hikarikyokwai Society started to publish this tabloid both in English and Japanese.

Concerning the reasons why it can be said divine revelation addressed to the whole nation of the world, shall be understood with the study of the said revelation itself, which would be introduced here afterwards. However, some characteristic points of the said revelation is that it shows very intimate relationship between so called divine scriptures of the world.

There are many who found very deep truth in it and who are convinced that things shown through the revelation are true and the commandments written in it must be fulfilled. Hikarikyokwai Society is the name to the group of such people.

Following is the English translation of another part from the revelation. [This is from Book 1, Chapter 1. –AHM]
- snip -
Example of original writing.
一んねんTけ二〇かmaruchonの三三一四もの一二四キ・T一八〇二もか〇二もか三〇つれ十も四で

English translation from the original writing, illustrated.
“This revelation can be understood in the measure of the depth of each soul destined to understand. The time has come the divine truth shall be preached. If not even stones shall take the role of human souls. Let us hear that the nature, mountain river and else, is revealing the divine truth day and night.”

Behold! Fuji has driven off clouds of chaos, and all heavens are cleared.
- source : Avery Morrow -




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- Reference : 日月神示
- Reference : hitsuki shinji


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #hitsukishinji #hifumishinji -
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01/03/2016

Kakinomoto Shrines

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸) .
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柿本神社 Kakinomoto Jinja Shrines in Japan
Kakimoto Yashiro Hitomaru Jinja 人丸神社 Hitomaru Yashiro 人丸社 / Hitomaro Jinja 人麿神社

. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸 / 人麿 .
(c. 662 – 710) - Introduction

Venerated as Kakinomoto Ookami 柿本大神 Kakinomoto Okami "Great Deity"
Kakinomoto Daimyoojin 柿本大明神 Kakinomoto Daimyojin
人丸神
柿本人丸神


He was a truly "divine" Waka poet and is revered in many shrines in Japan, for various reasons.


. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


My Introduction includes the following shrines:

Kakinomoto Jinja 柿本神社 Shinto Shrine in Akashi, Hyogo
Hitomaru Jinja 人丸神社 / Kakimoto Yashiro 柿本社

1-26 Hitomarucho, Akashi, Hyogo / 明石市人丸町1-26
- He is revered as a deity to cure eye disease and other illnesses, with a legend about the 盲杖桜 "Blind Stick Cherry".

Toda Kakinomoto Shrine 戸田柿本神社 - Masuda, Tottori
Hitomaro's birth place. The priest of Toda Kakinomoto Shrine is from the 綾部家 Ayabe family, and he is the 49th of Hitomaro's mother's line.

Takatsu Kakinomoto Shrine  高津柿本神社 Masuda, Tottori
Hitomaro's death place.

Fujisaki Hachimangu 藤崎八幡宮 Kumamoto, Kyushu


Other shrines mentioned below are introduced in the links given, but not in the -Introduction- links.
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waka no kami 和歌の神 Deity of Waka poetry

Hitomaro his one of the waka sanjin (waka sanshin) 和歌三神 three great Waka deities,
The Three Gods of Waka Poetry.

住吉明神 Sumiyoshi Myojin
玉津島明神 Tamatsushima Myojin
柿本人麻呂 Kakinomoto Hitomaro


. Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi .
Sakai no Myojin Shrine 境の明神 (福島) Fukushima
Two shrines at the border to the Northern Territories. One on each side of the frontier line.
On the inner side a shrine for the female deity (Tamatsushima Myojin 玉津島) to protect the interior.
On the outer side a shrine for a male deity (Sumiyoshi Myojin 住吉) to protect from enemies of the outside. 
Travellers in the Edo period used to pray here for a safe trip and gave thanks after a trip was finished.


- - - - - Other sources quote two other poets :
衣通姫 Sotoorihime and 山部赤人 Yamabe no Akahito.




Hitomaro: Poet as God
By Anne Commons
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (fl. ca. 690) is generally regarded as one of the pre-eminent poets of premodern Japan. While most existing scholarship on Hitomaro is concerned with his poetry, this study foregrounds the process of his reception and canonization as a deity of Japanese poetry. Building on new interest in issues of canon formation in premodern Japanese literature, this book traces the reception history of Hitomaro from its earliest beginnings to the early modern period, documenting and analysing the phases of the process through which Hitomaro was transformed from an admired poet to a poetic deity. The result is a new perspective on a familiar literary figure through his placement within the broader context of Japanese poetic culture.
- source : books.google.co.jp -


Hitomaro,
series of the Three Gods of Japanese Poetry (Waka sanjin)

Totoya Hokkei (1780–1850)


source : mfa.org/collections


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Hitomaru in the folk belief of Japan
人丸信仰とは?(柿本人麻呂にまつわる信仰)

Many shrines dedicated to him are located in the 中国地方 Chugoku Region of Western Japan.
His divinity is sometimes related to puns with his name, Hitomaru.
Hyogo and Yamaguchi have many shrines dedicated to Hitomaru.


CLICK for more photos !

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anzan no kami 安産の神 Anzan - Deity to grant easy birth
- hitomaru 人丸 - 人生まる - hito umaru - giving birth - pun
Hitomaru himself died an unnatural death.

- In the Iwami region 石見国守 and 高津柿本神社
When Hitomaru was about 50 years old, there are records indicating that he was appointed to a provincial office in Iwami Province — today the western part of Shimane Prefecture.

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人丸神社:栃木県さくら市松山新田300 / Matsuyama Shinden, Sakura, Tochigi Prefecture
人丸大明神 is revered with a statue and scroll of his poems.
He is also celebrated as protector of fire and water disasters 防火 / 水神.
During great famines 天明 / 天保の大飢饉 people prayed to him for salvation.

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川越氷川神社(柿本人麻呂神社):埼玉県川越市宮下町2-11-3 / Saitama, Kawagoe
He is also celebrated as protector of fires 防火の神.
see below - hi no kami 火の神 Deity of fire

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人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 / Yamaguchi, Hagi
Amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 are offered here.
He is also celebrated as 学問の神、漁業の神(龍神)、商業の神(龍神)、火難除けの神

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
He is also celebrated as 疫病除・火難除・眼病平癒・学問・水難海上安全の神.

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. Anzan Kosodate 安産子育て - all about amulets for Children .
- Introduction -

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ekibyoo yoke no kami 疫病除け神 - Ekibyo Deity to ward off infectious diseases
ekibyoo, yakubyoo 疫病 pestilence, epidemy
- at many shrines in Yamaguchi 山口県 and at 高津柿本神社



人丸神社:山口県山口市宮野七房
A stone figure is venerated in a small sanctuary 小祠.

柿本神社:山口県山口市阿東徳佐台 / Dai Atōtokusashimo, Yamaguchi-shi,

柿本神社:山口県山口市阿東地福上 / Atojifukukami, Yamaguchi

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 / 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
In 18365, a a great famine was in the region, followed by dysentery and epidemic diseases. It only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.
At this shrine, Kakinomoto is also venerated for
疫病除・火難除・安産・眼病平癒・学問・水難海上安全.

人丸神社:山口県山口市鋳銭司小森 / Komori Suzenji, Yamaguchi
About 200 years ago, an epidemiy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:山口県山口市徳地堀字下庄方 / Shimoshōgata Tokujihori, Yamaguchi
In 1900, a dysentery epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:山口県防府市東佐波令 / Higashisabaryo, Hofu
In 1799, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:岩国市竹安箕ノ越
In 1800, an epidemy was in the region of 河内郷 and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人磨神社:山口県防府市向島 Mukoshima, Hofu
In 1865, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸・大師堂:山口県岩国市周東町祖生今岡 Imaoka Shūtōmachi Soo, Iwakuni
In this Shrine, Kobo Daishi is also venerated. Much later Kakinomoto became
柿本大明神 -「疫病の神」.

繁枝神社(人麻呂社・おうばん社):山口県防府市台道527 / 527 Daidō, Hōfu
In 1820, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets of 人麻呂大明神 were offered here.

河内神社:山口県周南市高瀬840 Takase, Shunan
amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 are offered here to protect from epidemics.

河内神社:山口県周南市米光163-1 / 163-1 Yonemitsu, Shūnan
In 1835, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

飛龍八幡宮(河築神社):山口県周南市須々万本郷312 / 312 Susumahongō, Shūnan
At the shrine 河築神社 in the compound, Kakinomoto is venerated to protect from epidemics.

神沼田神社:山口県岩国市錦町深須上沼田
In 1851, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.
In 1977, this shrine was integrated with other shrines :
白鳥神社、地主神社、杵崎神社、柿本人麻呂神社、愛宕社.

寄江柿本大明神:山口県岩国市美和町下畑柿ノ木原 Kakinokibara Miwamachi Shimohata, Iwakuni-
A statue of 人丸明神 is venerated as a protector deity for epidemics.



. Yakubyoogami 疫病神 Yakubyogami, Deity of Diseases .
- Introduction -

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enmusubi no kami 縁結びの神 Deity to find a good partner
- because he wrote many poems remembering his wife
- at 高津柿本神社 Takatsu Kakinomoto Jinja


fuufu wagoo no kami 夫婦和合の神 Fufu Wago - Deity of good couples
- because he wrote many poems remembering his wife
- at 生田神社 Ikuta Jinja (人丸神社)- Hyogo, Kobe 兵庫県神戸市中央区下山手通1-2-1

. Enmusubi 縁結び to find a good partner in life .
Takasago Legend 高砂伝説

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gakumon no kami 学問の神 - Deity of learning

- at 生田神社 Ikuta Jinja (人丸神社)- Hyogo, Kobe 兵庫県神戸市中央区下山手通1-2-1

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 - Yamaguchi, Hagi

- at 柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi, 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi

- - 人丸神社:徳島県鳴門市里浦町里浦花面156 - Tokushima, Naruto
On his wanderings in Japan, Hitomaru came here, stayed for a while and taught Waka poetry to the local people. After his death, the shrine was erected with Hitomaru as deity of Poetry and Learning.

bungaku no kami 文学の神 - Deity of literature

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ganbyoo no kami 眼病平癒の神 - Ganbyo Deity for eye diseases
- Hyogo, Akashi 柿本神社 (see above)

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古熊神社(三森神社):山口県山口市古熊1-10-5 / Furukuma, Yamaguchi

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 / 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi, Yamaguchi

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. me 眼 / 目 - Amulets for Eye Disease .
- Introduction -

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geinoo no kami 芸能の神 - Geino Deity of the Performing Arts

- at Yamaguchi, Ube 宇部市の人丸神社

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gyogyoo 漁業の神 - Gyogyo Deity of the fishing industry
- He is seen as 龍神, Ryujin, a Dragon Deity

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 Yamaguchi, Hagi

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hi no kami 火の神 Deity to prevent fire
- and
protector of たたら職人 blacksmiths
- at 川越氷川神社(柿本人麻呂神社)Saitama, Kawagoe 埼玉県川越市宮下町2-11-3
4月18日に「柿本人麻呂祭」が行われる
A descendant of the Ayabe clan from Shimane is still Head Priest here, hence Kakinomoto is also venerated.



柿本人麻呂祭 Kakinomoto Hitomaro Festival
- reference : kawagoe-yell.com/annual-event -

booka no kami 防火の神 Boka - Deity to prevent fire
- hitomaru 人丸 - hi tomaru 火止まる fires stops - pun
- at 壬生寺 Mibudera (人丸塚 Hitomaruzuka)- Kyoto 京都府京都市中京区壬生梛ノ宮町31



柿本人麻呂の灰塚 Kakinomoto Hitomaro no Haizuka

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Koojin 荒神 Kojin Deity / Deity to watch over the kitchen fire 台所の火
- in the Iwami region 石見地方
- Seto Naikai region 瀬戸内海

. Aragamisama, 荒神様 Kojinsama, Kojin sama .
Kamagami 釜神 The Hearth Deity


. hi no yoojin 火の用心 watch out for fire - fire prevention .
- Introduction -

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. Munakata 宗像三女神 three female Munakata Deities .
Munakata Water Deities (suijin) and Waka Deities

Okami no kami 淤加美神 (オカミノカミ)a water deity
(闇淤加美神 Kuraokami 、闇御津羽神、闇罔象; たかおかみ / くらみつは Kuraokami, Takaokami, Kuramitsuha)

and two shrines dedicated to the Waka Poets - 和歌神社 Waka Jinja !

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. 猿田彦大神 the Great Deity Sarutahiko .
下御霊神社 Shimogoryo Jinja Kyoto - 柿本社 Kakinomoto Yashiro

At shrines for this deity Kakinomoto is also venerated as 柿本大神.

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seikatsu no shugojin 生活の守護神 Deity to protect daily life

- 石見国守 Many people in Iwami were involved in 製紙業 making paper, so he helped to keep their business prosperous
- at 高津柿本神社

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suinan yoke no kami 水難除けの神 Deity to prevent drowning and flooding
He is seen as suijin 水神 deity of water

- at 人丸神社 柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
- 水刑死に処されて非業の死を遂げたことから - Because he himself found his death sentence through drowning.


柿本人麻呂水死刑説 Theory about Kakinomoto's death by Drowning
死に臨んで自らを傷む
- reference :geocities.jp/yasuko8787 -


From waka mourning the death of a man from Sanuki Province, and a farewell poem at Kamoyama (Mt. Kamo) in Iwami province with elegies (banka, 挽歌) mourning his own death, many have seen this as Hitomaro acting as a palace official traveling to various provinces and reaching the end of his life in Iwami.
According to the Japanese scholar Itō Haku, however, this farewell poem is a folk drama portraying Hitomaro's own death, and the theory that the poem is a later counterfeit has also been suggested.
- quote wikipedia -

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shoogyoo no kami 商業の神 Shogyo - Deity of commerce and trade
- He is seen as ryuujin 龍神 Ryujin, a Dragon Deity

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699, Yamaguchi Hagi


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Fukuoka Hitomaru Shrine 人丸神社
福岡県粕屋郡新宮町下府 Shimonofu, Shingu, Kasuya District
福岡県糟屋郡新宮町桜山手

The daughter of Samurai Taira no Kagekiyo 平景清 (? - 1194) is named
Hitomaru Hime 人丸姫
and is venerated as deity at this shrine.



景清の妻は子供がないことを悲しみ、神仏に祈り続けました。治承二年(1178)3月15日に、朝日(旭)が上る時、懐妊を覚え、女の子を出産しました。
「旭」という字は「日」「丸」と書くことから「人丸」と名付けたと言われています。
- reference : lunabura.exblog.jp -

The character for morning sun 旭 can be seen as consisting of the two characters 日 and 丸, combined as Hitomaru.

. Taira no Kagekiyo 平景清 .

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Yamaguchi 柿本人麿社 / 人丸神社
山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
Hitomaro is celebrated here as
anzan no kami 安産の神 Anzan - Deity to grant easy birth
ekibyoo yoke no kami 疫病除け神 - Ekibyo Deity to ward off infectious diseases
gakumon no kami 学問の神 - Deity of learning
ganbyoo no kami 眼病平癒の神 - Ganbyo Deity for eye diseases
suinan yoke no kami 水難除けの神 Deity to prevent drowning and flooding
hinanyoke no kami 火難除けの神 Deity to prevent fire damage
- see above, hi no kami 火の神 Deity to prevent fire


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CLICK for more statues of Hitomaro .

柿本人麻呂にまつわる全国の神社仏閣(まとめ)
(A long list of shrines in Japan in honor of Hitomaro.)
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -

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人丸信仰とは?(柿本人麻呂にまつわる信仰)
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -

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. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #kakinomotoshrines #hitomarushrines #hitomaroshrines -
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. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸) .

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